Posted by : junaiding Rabu, 18 Juli 2012



international organizations and groups
Part I
1.      advanced developing countries
another term for those less developed countries (LDCs) with particularly rapid industrial development; see newly industrializing economies (NIEs)

2.      advanced economies
a term used by the International Monetary FUND (IMF) for the top group in its hierarchy of advanced economies, countries in transition, and developing countries; it includes the following 33 advanced economies: Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hong Kong, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, NZ, Norway, Portugal, Singapore, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, UK, US; note - this group would presumably also cover the following nine smaller countries of Andorra, Bermuda, Faroe Islands, Guernsey, Holy See, Jersey, Liechtenstein, Monaco, and San Marino that are included in the more comprehensive group of "developed countries"

3.      African Development Bank Group (AfDB)
note - regional multilateral development finance institution temporarily located in Tunis, Tunisia; the Bank Group consists of the African Development Bank, the African Development Fund, and the Nigerian Trust Fund
established - 10 September 1964
aim - to promote economic development and social progress
regional members - (53) Algeria, Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Djibouti, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon, The Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Africa, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Tunisia, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe
nonregional members - (24) Argentina, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, China, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, India, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Kuwait, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Saudi Arabia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, UK, US

4.      African Union (AU)
note - replaces Organization of African Unity (OAU)
established - 8 July 2001
aim - to achieve greater unity among African States; to defend states' integrity and independence; to accelerate political, social, and economic integration; to encourage international cooperation; to promote democratic principles and institutions
members - (54) Algeria, Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Djibouti, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon, The Gambia, Ghana, Guinea (suspended), Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic (Western Sahara), Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Africa, South Sudan, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Tunisia, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe

5.      African Union/United Nations Hybrid Operation in Darfur (UNAMID)
established - 31 July 2007
aim - to contribute to the restoration of security conditions which will allow safe humanitarian assistance throughout Darfur, to contribute to the protection of civilian populations under imminent threat of physical attack, to monitor, observe compliance with, and verify the implementation of various ceasefire agreements
members - (37) Bangladesh, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Canada, China, Ecuador, Egypt, Ethiopia, The Gambia, Germany, Ghana, Guatemala, Indonesia, Jordan, Kenya, South Korea, Lesotho, Malawi, Malaysia, Mali, Mongolia, Namibia, Nepal, Nigeria, Pakistan, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Uganda, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe

6.      African, Caribbean, and Pacific Group of States (ACP Group)
established - 6 June 1975
aim - to manage their preferential economic and aid relationship with the EU
members - (79) Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, The Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Cook Islands, Cote d'Ivoire, Cuba, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Gabon, The Gambia, Ghana, Grenada, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Jamaica, Kenya, Kiribati, Lesotho, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Mauritius, Federated States of Micronesia, Mozambique, Namibia, Nauru, Niger, Nigeria, Niue, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Tanzania, Timor-Leste, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tuvalu, Uganda, Vanuatu, Zambia, Zimbabwe

7.      Agency for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean (OPANAL)
note - acronym from Organismo para la Proscripcion de las Armas Nucleares en la America Latina y el Caribe (OPANAL)
established - 14 February 1967 under the Treaty of Tlatelolco; effective - 25 April 1969 on the 11th ratification
aim - to encourage the peaceful uses of atomic energy and prohibit nuclear weapons
members - (33) Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, The Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Grenada, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay, Venezuela

8.      Alliance of Small Island States (AOSIS)
established - November 1990
aim - to call attention to threats of sea-level rise and coral bleaching to small islands and lowlying coastal developing states from global warming; to emphasize the importance of information and information technology in the process of achieving sustainable development
members - (39) Antigua and Barbuda, The Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Cape Verde, Comoros, Cook Islands, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Fiji, Grenada, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Jamaica, Kiribati, Maldives, Marshall Islands, Mauritius, Federated States of Micronesia, Nauru, Niue, Palau, Papua New Guinea, St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Lucia, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, Sao Tome and Principe, Seychelles, Singapore, Solomon Islands, Suriname, Timor-Leste, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tuvalu, Vanuatu.
observers - (3) American Samoa, Guam, U.S. Virgin Islands

9.      Andean Community (CAN)
note - formerly known as the Andean Group (AG) and the Andean Common Market (Ancom) established - 26 May 1969; present name established 1 October 1992; effective - 16 October 1969
aim - to promote harmonious development through economic integration
members - (4) Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru
associate members - (5) Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay, Uruguay
observers - (2) Mexico, Panama

10.  Arab Bank for Economic Development in Africa (ABEDA)
note - also known as Banque Arabe de Developpement Economique en Afrique (BADEA)
established - 18 February 1974; effective - 16 September 1974
aim - to promote economic development
members - (17 plus the Palestine Liberation Organization) Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, UAE, Palestine Liberation Organization; note - these are all the members of the Arab League excluding Comoros, Djibouti, Somalia, Yemen

11.  Arab Fund for Economic and Social Development (AFESD)
established - 16 May 1968
aim - to promote economic and social development
members - (20 plus the Palestine Liberation Organization) Algeria, Bahrain, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia (suspended 1993), Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, UAE, Yemen, Palestine Liberation Organization

12.  Arab Maghreb Union (AMU)
established - 17 February 1989
aim - to promote cooperation and integration among the Arab states of northern Africa
members - (5) Algeria, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Tunisia

13.  Arab Monetary Fund (AMF)
established - 27 April 1976; effective - 2 February 1977
aim - to promote Arab cooperation, development, and integration in monetary and economic affairs
members - (21 plus the Palestine Liberation Organization) Algeria, Bahrain, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, UAE, Yemen, Palestine Liberation Organization

14.  Arctic Council
established - 18 September 1996.
aim - to address the common concerns and challenges faced by Arctic governments and the people of the Arctic; to protect the Arctic environment.
members - (8) Canada, Denmark (Greenland, Faroe Islands), Finland, Iceland, Norway, Russia, Sweden, US.
permanent participants - (6) Aleut International Association, Arctic Athabaskan Council, Gwich'in Council International, Inuit Circumpolar Conference, Russian Association of Indigenous People of the North, Saami Council.
observers - (6) France, Germany, Netherlands, Poland, Spain, UK

15.  ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF)
established - 25 July 1994.
aim - to foster constructive dialogue and consultation on political and security issues of common interest and concern.
members - (27) Australia, Bangladesh, Brunei, Burma, Cambodia, Canada, China, EU, India, Indonesia, Japan, North Korea, South Korea, Laos, Malaysia, Mongolia, NZ, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Russia, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Timor-Leste, US, Vietnam

16.  Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC)
established - 7 November 1989
aim - to promote trade and investment in the Pacific basin.
members - (21) Australia, Brunei, Canada, Chile, China, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Japan, South Korea, Malaysia, Mexico, NZ, Papua New Guinea, Peru, Philippines, Russia, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand, US, Vietnam.
observers - (3) Association of Southeast Asian Nations, Pacific Economic Cooperation Council, Pacific Islands Forum Secretariat

17.  Asian Development Bank (ADB)
established - 19 December 1966.
aim - to promote regional economic cooperation.
members - (48) Afghanistan, Armenia, Australia, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Brunei, Burma, Cambodia, China, Cook Islands, Fiji, Georgia, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Japan, Kazakhstan, Kiribati, South Korea, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Malaysia, Maldives, Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Mongolia, Nauru, Nepal, NZ, Pakistan, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Samoa, Singapore, Solomon Islands, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Tajikistan, Thailand, Timor- Leste, Tonga, Turkmenistan, Tuvalu, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Vietnam.
nonregional members - (19) Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, UK, US

18.  Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)
established - 8 August 1967.
aim - to encourage regional economic, social, and cultural cooperation among the non-Communist countries of Southeast Asia.
members - (10) Brunei, Burma, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam.
dialogue partners - (11) Australia, Canada, China, EU, India, Japan, South Korea, NZ, Pakistan, Russia, US.
observers - (1) Papua New Guinea

19.  Australia Group (AG)
established - June 1985.
aim - to consult on and coordinate export controls related to chemical and biological weapons.
members - (41) Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, European Commission, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, NZ, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, UK, US

20.  Australia-New Zealand-United States Security Treaty (ANZUS).
established - 1 September 1951; effective - 29 April 1952.
aim - to implement a trilateral mutual security agreement, although the US suspended security obligations to NZ on 11 August 1986; Australia and the US continue to hold annual meetings.
members - (3) Australia, NZ, US

21.  Baltic Assembly (BA)
established - 12 May 1990.
aim - to thoroughly discuss various cooperation issues between Baltic states.
members - (3) Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania

22.  Bank for International Settlements (BIS)
established - 20 January 1930; effective - 17 March 1930.
aim - to promote cooperation among central banks in international financial settlements.
members - (58) Algeria, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, China, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, European Central Bank, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hong Kong, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Malaysia, Mexico, Netherlands, NZ, Norway, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Serbia, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Thailand, Turkey, UK, US; note - Montenegro has a separate central bank; its links with BIS are currently under review

23.  Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation (BIMSTEC).
established - June 1997.
aim - to foster socio-economic cooperation among members.
members - (7) Bangladesh, Bhutan, Burma, India, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Thailand

24.  Benelux Union (Benelux).
note - acronym from Belgium, Netherlands, and Luxembourg; was formerly known as Benelux Economic Union.
established - 3 February 1958; effective - 1 November 1960; changed names 17 June 2008.
aim - to develop closer economic and legal cooperation and integration.
members - (3) Belgium, Luxembourg, Netherlands

25.  Big Seven.
note - membership is the same as the Group of 7.
established – 1975.
aim - to discuss and coordinate major economic policies.
members - (7) Big Six (Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, UK) plus the US

26.  Black Sea Economic Cooperation Zone (BSEC).
established - 25 June 1992.
aim - to enhance regional stability through economic cooperation.
members - (12) Albania, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bulgaria, Georgia, Greece, Moldova, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Turkey, Ukraine; note - Macedonia is in the process of joining.
observers - (17) Austria, Belarus, Black Sea Commission, EU, Croatia, Czech Republic, Egypt, Energy Charter Secretariat, France, Germany, International Black Sea Club, Israel, Italy, Poland, Slovakia, Tunisia, US; note - Bosnia and Herzegovina and Slovenia have applied for observer status

27.  BRICS.
note - note: the name of the organization stands for the first letter of each of the five members' names.
established - BRIC established 16 June 2009; BRICS established24 December 2011.
aim - to establish means of improving world economic situation and reforming its financial institutions; to find a new global currency.
members - (5) Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa

28.  Caribbean Community and Common Market (Caricom).
established - 4 July 1973; effective - 1 August 1973.
aim - to promote economic integration and development, especially among the less developed countries.
members - (15) Antigua and Barbuda, The Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Dominica, Grenada, Guyana, Haiti, Jamaica, Montserrat, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago.
associate members - (5) Anguilla, Bermuda, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Turks and Caicos Islands.
observers - (8) Aruba, Colombia, Curacao, Dominican Republic, Mexico, Puerto Rico, Sint Maarten, Venezuela

29.  Caribbean Development Bank (CDB).
established - 18 October 1969; effective - 26 January 1970.
aim - to promote economic development and cooperation.
regional members - (21) Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, The Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Colombia, Dominica, Grenada, Guyana, Haiti, Jamaica, Mexico, Montserrat, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Trinidad and Tobago, Turks and Caicos Islands, Venezuela.
nonregional members - (5) Canada, China, Germany, Italy, UK

30.  Central African Customs and Economic Union (UDEAC).
see Economic and Monetary Community of Central Africa (CEMAC)

31.  Central African States Development Bank (BDEAC).
note - acronym from Banque de Developpement des Etats de l'Afrique Centrale.
established - 3 December 1975.
aim - to provide loans for economic development.
members - (10) African Development Bank (AfDB), Cameroon, Central African States Bank (BEAC), Central African Republic, Chad, Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, France, Gabon, Kuwait

32.  Central American Bank for Economic Integration (BCIE).
note - acronym from Banco Centroamericano de Integracion Economico.
established - 13 December 1960 signature of Articles of Agreement; 31 May 1961 began operations.
aim - to promote economic integration and development.
members - (5) Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua.
nonregional members - (7) Argentina, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Mexico, Panama, Spain, Taiwan

33.  Central American Common Market (CACM).
established - 13 December 1960, collapsed in 1969, reinstated in 1991.
aim - to promote establishment of a Central American Common Market.
members - (5) Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua

34.  Central American Integration System (SICA).
established - 13 December 1991; operational 1 February 1993.
aim - to strengthen democracy; to set up a new model of regional security; to promote freedom; to achieve a regional system of welfare and economic and social justice; to attain economic unity and strengthen the area as an economic bloc; to act as a bloc in international matters.
members - (7) Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama.
associated member - (1) Dominican Republic.
observers - (8) Argentina, Brazil, Chile, China, Germany, Japan, Mexico, Spain

35.  Central European Initiative (CEI).
note - evolved from the Quadrilateral Initiative and the Hexagonal Initiative.
established - 11 November 1989 as the Quadrilateral Initiative, 27 July 1991 became the Hexagonal Initiative, July 1992 its present name was adopted.
aim - to form an economic and political cooperation group for the region between the Adriatic and the Baltic Seas.
members - (18) Albania, Austria, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Italy, Macedonia, Moldova, Montenegro, Poland, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Ukraine

36.  Centrally planned economies.
a term applied mainly to the traditionally Communist states that looked to the former USSR for leadership; most are now evolving toward more democratic and market-oriented systems; also known formerly as the Second World or as the Communist countries; through the 1980s, this group included Albania, Bulgaria, Cambodia, China, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, German Democratic Republic, Hungary, North Korea, Laos, Mongolia, Poland, Romania, USSR, Vietnam, Yugoslavia, but now is limited to Cuba and North Korea, and less so to China

37.  Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO).
established - 7 October 2002.
aim - to coordinate military and political cooperation, to develop multilateral structures and mechanisms of cooperation for ensuring national security of the member states.
members - (7) Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan

38.  Colombo Plan (CP).
established - May 1950 proposal was adopted; 1 July 1951 commenced full operations.
aim - to promote economic and social development in Asia and the Pacific.
members - (26) Afghanistan, Australia, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Brunei, Burma, Fiji, India, Indonesia, Iran, Japan, South Korea, Laos, Malaysia, Maldives, Mongolia, Nepal, NZ, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Thailand, US, Vietnam

39.  Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA).
note - formerly known as Preferential Trade Area for Eastern and Southern Africa (PTA).
established - treaty signed 5 November 1993; treaty ratified 8 December 1994.
aim - recognizing, promoting and protecting fundamental human rights, commitment to the principles of liberty and rule of law, maintaining peace and stability through the promotion and strengthening of good neighborliness, commitment to peaceful settlement of disputes among member states.
members - (19) Burundi, Comoros, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Rwanda, Seychelles, Sudan, Swaziland, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe

40.  Commonwealth (C).
note - also known as Commonwealth of Nations.
established - 31 December 1931.
aim - to foster multinational cooperation and assistance, as a voluntary association that evolved from the British Empire.
members - (54) Antigua and Barbuda, Australia, The Bahamas, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belize, Botswana, Brunei, Cameroon, Canada, Cyprus, Dominica, Fiji (suspended), The Gambia, Ghana, Grenada, Guyana, India, Jamaica, Kenya, Kiribati, Lesotho, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Malta, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Nauru, NZ, Nigeria, Pakistan (reinstated 2004), Papua New Guinea, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Solomon Islands, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Swaziland, Tanzania, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tuvalu, Uganda, UK, Vanuatu, Zambia; note - on 7 December 2003 Zimbabwe withdrew its membership from the Commonwealth

41.  Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS).
established - 8 December 1991; effective - 21 December 1991.
aim - to coordinate intercommonwealth relations and to provide a mechanism for the orderly dissolution of the USSR.
members - (10) Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan; note - neither Ukraine as a participating member nor Turkmenistan as an associate member have signed the 1993 CIS charter, although both participate in meetings; Georgia left the organization in August 2009

42.  Communist countries
traditionally the Marxist-Leninist states with authoritarian governments and command economies based on the Soviet model; most of the original and the successor states are no longer Communist; see centrally planned economies.

43.  Community of Democracies (CD).
established - 27 June 2000.
aim - "to respect and uphold core democratic principals and practices" including free and fair elections, freedom of speech and expression, equal access to education, rule of law, and freedom of peaceful assembly.
members - (25) Canada, Cape Verde, Chile, Czech Republic, El Salvador, Finland, Hungary, India, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Lithuania, Mali, Mexico, Mongolia, Morocco, Nigeria, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Romania, South Africa, Sweden, US, Uruguay.

44.  Community of Latin American and Caribbean States (CELAC).
note - successor to the Rio Group and the Latin America and Caribbean Summit on Integration and Development.
established - created 23 February 2010; established July 2011.
aim - to deepen the integration within Latin American and to reduce the influence of the US in the politics and economics of that part of the world.
members - (33) Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Bahamas, Barbadoes, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Grenada, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Lucia, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguasy, Venezuela.

45.  Comuinidade dos Paises de Lingua Portuguesa (CPLP).
established – 1996.
aim - to establish a forum for friendship among Portuguese-speaking nations where Portuguese is an official language.
members - (8) Angola, Brazil, Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau, Mozambique, Portugal, Sao Tome and Principe, Timor-Leste
associate observers - (3) Equatorial Guinea, Mauritius, Senegal.

46.  Conference of Interaction and Confidence-Building Measures in Asia (CICA).
established - proposed 5 October 1992; established 14 September 1999.
aim - promoting a multi-national forum for enhancing cooperation towards promoting peace, security, and stability in Asia.
members - (23 and the Palestine Liberation Organization) Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Cambodia, China, Egypt, India, Iraq, Iran, Israel, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, Pakistan, South Korea, Russia, Tajikistan, Thailand, Turkey, UAE, Uzbekistan, Vietnam, and the Palestine Liberation Organization.
observers - (12) Bangladesh, Cambodia, Indonesia, Japan, League of Arab States, Malaysia, OSCE, Philippines, Qatar, Ukraine, UN, US.

47.  Convention of the Southeast European Law Enforcement Center (SELEC).
note - successor to Southeast European Cooperative Iniative (SECI) formed in 1996 to help the Southeast European countries rebuild and stabilize through access to resources.
established - 7 October 2011.
aim - to provide support for Member States and enhance coordination in preventing and combating crime in trans-border activity.
members - (13) Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece, Hungary, Macedonia, Moldova, Montenegro, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia, Turkey.
observers - (17) Austria, Azerbaijan, Belgium, Czech Republic, France, Georgia, Germany, Israel, Italy, Japan, The Netherlands, Portugal, Slovakia, Spain, Ukraine, UK, US.

48.  Coordinating Committee on Export Controls (COCOM).
established in 1949 to control the export of strategic products and technical data from member countries to proscribed destinations; members were: Australia, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Turkey, UK, US; abolished 31 March 1994; COCOM members established a new organization, the Wassenaar Arrangement, with expanded membership on 12 July 1996 that focuses on nonproliferation export controls as opposed to East-West control of advanced technology.

49.  Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (CEMA).
note - also known as CMEA or Comecon.
established 25 January 1949 to promote the development of socialist economies and abolished 1 January 1991;
members included Afghanistan (observer), Albania (had not participated since 1961 break with USSR), Angola (observer), Bulgaria, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Ethiopia (observer), GDR, Hungary, Laos (observer), Mongolia, Mozambique (observer), Nicaragua (observer), Poland, Romania, USSR, Vietnam, Yemen (observer), Yugoslavia (associate).

50.  Council of Arab Economic Unity (CAEU).
established - 3 June 1957; effective - 30 May 1964.
aim - to promote economic integration among Arab nations.
members - (11 plus the Palestine Liberation Organization) Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Libya, Mauritania, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, UAE, Yemen, Palestine Liberation Organization.

51.  Council of Europe (CE).
established - 5 May 1949; effective - 3 August 1949.
aim - to promote increased unity and quality of life in Europe.
members - (47) Albania, Andorra, Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Malta, Moldova, Monaco, Montenegro, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, San Marino, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, UK.
observers - (6) Canada, Holy See, Israel, Japan, Mexico, US.

52.  Council of the Baltic Sea States (CBSS).
established - 6 March 1992.
aim - to promote cooperation among the Baltic Sea states in the areas of aid to new democratic institutions, economic development, humanitarian aid, energy and the environment, cultural programs and education, and transportation and communication.
members - (12) Denmark, Estonia, EC, Finland, Germany, Iceland, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway, Poland, Russia, Sweden.
observers - (10) Belarus, France, Italy, Netherlands, Romania, Spain, Slovakia, Ukraine, UK, US.

53.  Council of the Entente (Entente).
established - 29 May 1959.
aim - to promote economic, social, and political coordination.
members - (5) Benin, Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, Niger, Togo.

54.  countries in transition.
a term used by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) for the middle group in its hierarchy of formerly centrally planned economies; IMF statistics include the following 28 countries in transition: Albania, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Georgia, Hungary, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Mongolia, Montenegro, Poland, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan; note - this group is identical to the group traditionally referred to as the "former USSR/Eastern Europe" except for the addition of Mongolia.

55.  Customs Cooperation Council (CCC).
note - see World Customs Organization (WCO).

56.  developed countries (DCs).
the top group in the hierarchy of developed countries (DCs), former USSR/Eastern Europe (former USSR/EE), and less developed countries (LDCs); includes the market-oriented economies of the mainly democratic nations in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), Bermuda, Israel, South Africa, and the European ministates; also known as the First World, high-income countries, the North, industrial countries; generally have a per capita GDP in excess of $15,000 although four OECD countries and South Africa have figures well under $15,000 and eight of the excluded OPEC countries have figures of more than $20,000; the DCs include: Andorra, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bermuda, Canada, Denmark, Faroe Islands, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Holy See, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Malta, Monaco, Netherlands, NZ, Norway, Portugal, San Marino, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, UK, US; note - similar to the new International Monetary Fund (IMF) term "advanced economies" that adds Hong Kong, South Korea, Singapore, and Taiwan but drops Malta, Mexico, South Africa, and Turkey.

57.  developing countries.
a term used by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) for the bottom group in its hierarchy of advanced economies, countries in transition, and developing countries; IMF statistics include the following 126 developing countries: Afghanistan, Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Aruba, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Cyprus, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Gabon, The Gambia, Ghana, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Jamaica, Jordan, Kenya, Kiribati, Kuwait, Laos, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Federated States of Micronesia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands Antilles, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Qatar, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Syria, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, UAE, Uganda, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe; note - this category would presumably also cover the following 46 other countries that are traditionally included in the more comprehensive group of "less developed countries": American Samoa, Anguilla, British Virgin Islands, Brunei, Cayman Islands, Christmas Island, Cocos Islands, Cook Islands, Cuba, Eritrea, Falkland Islands, French Guiana, French Polynesia, Gaza Strip, Gibraltar, Greenland, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Guam, Guernsey, Isle of Man, Jersey, North Korea, Macau, Martinique, Mayotte, Montserrat, Nauru, New Caledonia, Niue, Norfolk Island, Northern Mariana Islands, Palau, Pitcairn Islands, Puerto Rico, Reunion, Saint Helena, Ascension, and Tristan da Cunha, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, Tokelau, Tonga, Turks and Caicos Islands, Tuvalu, Virgin Islands, Wallis and Futuna, West Bank, Western Sahara.

58.  Developing Eight (D-8).
established - 15 June 1997.
aim - to improve developing countries' positions in the world economy, diversify and create new opportunities in trade relations, enhance participation in decision-making at the international level, provide better standards of living.
member - (8) Bangladesh, Egypt, Indonesia, Iran, Malaysia, Nigeria, Pakistan, Turkey.

59.  East African Community (EAC).
note - originally established in 1967, it was disbanded in 1977.
established - January 2001.
aim - to establish a political and economic union among the countries.
members - (5) Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda.

60.  East African Development Bank (EADB).
established - 6 June 1967; effective - 1 December 1967.
aim - to promote economic development.
members - (4) Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda.

61.  East Asia Summit (EAS).
established - 14 December 2005.
aim - to promote cooperation in political and security issues; to promote development, financial stability, energy security, economic integration and growth; to eradicate poverty and narrow the development gap in East Asia, and to promote deeper cultural understanding.
members - (18) Australia, Brunei, Burma, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, South Korea, Laos, Malaysia, NZ, Philippines, Russia, Singapore, Thailand, US, Vietnam.

62.  Economic and Monetary Community of Central Africa (CEMAC).
note - was formerly the Central African Customs and Economic Union (UDEAC).
established - 8 December 1964; effective - 1 January 1966.
aim - to promote the establishment of a Central African Common Market.
members - (6) Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon.

63.  Economic and Monetary Union (EMU).
note - an integral part of the European Union; also known as the European Economic and Monetary Union.
established - 1-2 December 1969 (proposed at summit conference of heads of government; 7 February 1992 (Maastricht Treaty signed).
aim - to promote a single market by creating a single currency, the euro; timetable - 2 May 1998: European exchange rates fixed for 1 January 1999; 1 January 1999: all banks and stock exchanges begin using euros; 1 January 2002: the euro goes into circulation; 1 July 2002 local currencies no longer accepted.
members - (17) Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain.

64.  Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC).
established - 26 June 1945; effective - 24 October 1945.
aim - to coordinate the economic and social work of the UN; includes five regional commissions (Economic Commission for Africa, Economic Commission for Europe, Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean, Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia) and nine functional commissions (Commission for Social Development, Commission on Human Rights, Commission on Narcotic Drugs, Commission on the Status of Women, Commission on Population and Development, Statistical Commission, Commission on Science and Technology for Development, Commission on Sustainable Development, and Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice).
members - (54) selected on a rotating basis from all regions.

65.  Economic Community of the Great Lakes Countries (CEPGL).
note - acronym from Communaute Economique des Pays des Grands Lacs.
established - 20 September 1976.
aim - to promote regional economic cooperation and integration.
members - (3) Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Rwanda; note - organization collapsed because of fighting in 1998; reactivated in 2006.

66.  Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS).
established - 28 May 1975.
aim - to promote regional economic cooperation.
members - (15) Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Cote d'Ivoire, The Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo.

67.  Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO).
established - 27-29 January 1985.
aim - to promote regional cooperation in trade, transportation, communications, tourism, cultural affairs, and economic development.
members - (10) Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, Iran, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan.

68.  Eurasian Economic Community (EAEC or EurasEC).
note - merged with Central Asian Cooperation Organization (CACO) in 2005.
established - May 2001.
aim - to create a common economic and energy policy.
members - (6) Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan.
observers - (3) Armenia, Moldova, Ukraine.

69.  Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council (EAPC).
note - began as the North Atlantic Cooperation Council (NACC); an extension of NATO.
established - 8 November 1991; effective - 20 December 1991.
aim - to discuss cooperation on mutual political and security issues.
members - (50) Albania, Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Canada, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Malta, Moldova, Montenegro, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Tajikistan, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, UK, US, Uzbekistan.

70.  European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD).
established - 8-9 January 1990 (proposals made); 15 April 1991 (bank inaugurated).
aim - to facilitate the transition of seven centrally planned economies in Europe (Bulgaria, former Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, Romania, former USSR, and former Yugoslavia) to market economies by committing 60% of its loans to privatization.
members - (63) Albania, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Canada, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Egypt, EU, European Investment Bank (EIB), Estonia, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan, South Korea, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Malta, Mexico, Moldova, Mongolia, Montenegro, Morocco, Netherlands, NZ, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Tajikistan, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, UK, US, Uzbekistan.

71.  European Central Bank (ECB).
established - 1 June 1998.
aim - to administer the monetary policy of the EU Eurozone member states.
members - (15) Austria, Belgium, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain.

72.  European Community (or European Communities, EC).
established 8 April 1965 to integrate the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom), the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), the European Economic Community (EEC or Common Market), and to establish a completely integrated common market and an eventual federation of Europe; merged into the European Union (EU) on 7 February 1992; member states at the time of merger were Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, UK.

73.  European Free Trade Association (EFTA).
established - 4 January 1960; effective - 3 May 1960.
aim - to promote expansion of free trade.
members - (4) Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, Switzerland.

74.  European Investment Bank (EIB).
established - 25 March 1957; effective - 1 January 1958.
aim - to promote economic development of the EU and its predecessors, the EEC and the EC.
members - (27) Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, UK.

75.  European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN).
note - acronym retained from the predecessor organization Conseil Europeenne pour la Recherche Nucleaire.
established - 1 July 1953; effective - 29 September 1954.
aim - to foster nuclear research for peaceful purposes only.
members - (20) Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, UK.
observers - (7) EC, Israel, Japan, Russia, Turkey, United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), US.

76.  European Space Agency (ESA).
established - 31 May 1975.
aim - to promote peaceful cooperation in space research and technology.
members - (18) Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, UK.
cooperating states - (5) Estonia, Hungary, Poland, Romania (has begun its accession process to ESA), Slovenia.

77.  European Union (EU).
note - see European Union entry at the end of the "country" listings Extractive Industry Transparency Initiative (EITI).
established - October 2002 Initiative annouced; June 2003 first EITC Plenary Conference.
aim - to set a global standard for transparency in the extractive industries in an effort to make natural resources benefit all.
supporting countries - (17) Australia, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Germany, Finland, France, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, Norway, Qatar, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, UK, US.
compliant countries - (12) Azerbaijan, Central African Republic, Ghana, Kyrgyz Republic, Liberia, Mali, Mongolia, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Timor-Leste, Yemen (suspended).
candidate countries - (23) Afghanistan, Albania, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Gabon, Guatemala, Guinea, Indonesia, Iraq, Kazakhstan, Madagascar (suspended), Mauritania, Mozambique, Peru, Sierra Leone, Tanzania, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Zambia.

78.  Financial Action Task Force (FATF).
established - by G-7 Summit in Paris in 1989.
aim - to develop and promote policies to combat money laundering and terrorist financing.
members - (36) Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, China, Denmark, EC, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Gulf Cooperation Council, Hong Kong, Iceland, India, Ireland, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Luxembourg, Mexico, Netherlands (Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten), NZ, Norway, Portugal, Russia, Singapore, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, UK, US.

79.  First World.
another term for countries with advanced, industrialized economies; this term is fading from use; see developed countries (DCs).

80.  Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO).
established - 16 October 1945.
aim - to raise living standards and increase availability of agricultural products; a UN specialized agency.
members - (192) includes all UN member countries except Brunei, Liechtenstein, Singapore, South Sudan (189 total); plus Cook Islands, EU, and Niue.

81.  former Soviet Union (FSU).
former term often used to identify as a group the successor nations to the Soviet Union or USSR; this group of 15 countries consists of: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Estonia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan.

82.  former USSR/Eastern Europe (former USSR/EE).
the middle group in the hierarchy of developed countries (DCs), former USSR/Eastern Europe (former USSR/EE), and less developed countries (LDCs); these countries are in political and economic transition and may well be grouped differently in the near future; this group of 27 countries consists of: Albania, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Georgia, Hungary, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Yugoslavia; this group is identical to the IMF group "countries in transition" except for the IMF's inclusion of Mongolia.

83.  Four Dragons.
the four small Asian less developed countries (LDCs) that have experienced unusually rapid economic growth; also known as the Four Tigers; this group consists of Hong Kong, South Korea, Singapore, Taiwan; these countries are included in the IMF's "advanced economies" group.

84.  Franc Zone (FZ).
note - also known as Conference des Ministres des Finances des Pays de la Zone Franc.
established – 1964.
aim - to form a monetary union among countries whose currencies were linked to the French franc.
members - (16) Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Republic of the Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Equatorial Guinea, France, Gabon, Guinea-Bissau, Mali, Niger, Senegal, Togo.

85.  Front Line States (FLS).
established to achieve black majority rule in South Africa; has since gone out of existence;
members included Angola, Botswana, Mozambique, Namibia, Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe.


Continued to Part II

Leave a Reply

Subscribe to Posts | Subscribe to Comments

Welcome to My Blog

Translate

Popular Post

Followers

Ada kesalahan di dalam gadget ini

- Copyright © INTERNATIONAL LAW -Robotic Notes- Powered by Blogger - Designed by Johanes Djogan -